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Medici

The Medicis used the artists for their own purpose, because they wanted to make their family more powerful, richer and more famous. Therefore, they looked out for the best painters, artists, architects, scientists, geologists and writers in order to take benefit of their work. They liked also the positive and soft image they got from the prestigious work of their patronized artists. On the other side, as today and in recent history (3rd Reich), many artists like to be linked to power, and are attracted by powerful people/names. So, the relationship between artist and the Medicis was probably not a one way street. Without the financial help of powerful people, like the Medicis, many big achievements would not get real.

The merit of the Medicis is their support to such a wide variety of art and science and their good taste in selecting those artists/scientists we still view today as the best of their time. For this, they deserve their fame in history.

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Cloning

If you copy a picture you get the exact same picture again. If you clone an organism you get the exact same organism again. Cloning actually means, making an organism, which is an exact genetic copy of another organism of the same species. These two organisms then have the exact same DNA.

There are also cloned humans, I am sure you know some. They are special but not rare, and also exist in threes. But they are not made in a lab, no, they are made naturally. Do you know any identical twins? Those are cloned humans.

You might have heard from Dolly the sheep, which got cloned. Dolly lives since 1997, but cloning technologies exist longer than Dolly.

How can you clone?

Artificial embryo twinning is the relatively low-tech version of cloning. As the name says, this technology is the natural process of creating identical twins. But it occurs in a Petri dish instead of in the mother’s body. And since all the embryos came from the same zygote, they are genetically identical.

Somatic cell nuclear transfer, (SCNT) produces the same result than artificial embryo twinning but makes it in a different way, to make an exact clone, or a genetic copy, of an individual.

With this alternative, Dolly the sheep was created.

With the same way as cloning, we can also genetically modify the embryos, so that they look how we want them to, without diseases and with no disabilities. Humans can also change food and such things with the genetically modifying.

Cloning can be a god and a bad thing but also dangerous.

A good thing it can be for diseases and allergies, because we could genetically change/modify the children so that they don’t have any diseases in their body. With this way the humanity could expulse any diseases and the pest.

Bad things about cloning are that evil people would misuse cloning/genetically modifying to breed a perfect human race to kill everybody else to extend their power. Hitler for example, if he would live now and would reign Germany, he would breed his perfect human race, the ‘Ariers’, with blond hair, blue eyes, perfect noses and chins, man having wide and strong shoulders, women having nice long legs, and not too big feet, and so on…

They could also say that they are sending food to poor countries in Africa, but in real they are sending them modified food, which has diseases in it. So they could kill them all and easily take Africa under their rule, for example.

My own opinion is that cloning is not a good idea. For some things it is good, but if we could manage it to save every person life, then we would have more and more people on earth and the environment would get more and more polluted, because we can’t control so many people, and someday we would ran out of water and food and then everybody would die. So I think it’s better to not let the population extend but that the humanity exists forever so I know that my grand-grand-grand-….. Children will not die of a human issue of my generation.

Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei was born on the 15th February, 1564 in Pisa, and died on the 8th January 1642 in Florence. Galileo was a philosopher and invented many things. In his childhood, Galileo was sent to a Monastery but when he showed interest in joining the Benedictine order, his father sent him to a medicine school in Paris. But after four years he left this school to go to Florence to study Mathematics.

With one of his new constructions, the astronomical telescope, Galileo was the first to notice the special shape of Saturn, and he also identified the Milky Way. He named the previously unknown moons of Jupiter after the Medici, who made him then the most famous scientist in the world. He also found the background of the pendulum out, and how it works.

He was the one who figured out that the earth is surrounding the sun and therefore he realized that the earth is not the center of the universe. But even with his smartness, Galileo made one big error, with thinking that tides are caused by the swing of the earth.

   

He was like Leonardo da Vinci, kind of a Well-roundedness and also Secularism person. Because he was studying medicine and figured out so many things, Galileo wasn’t in an agreement with the church.

When he told the people that the earth is surrounding the sun and, not the other way round, the church offered him the choice to confirm the opposite or get killed. Even under this threat he still continued to say that the earth is not the center of universe, but in a smart way.

We can’t really connect him with the modern world because today there are many inventors and scientists who are figuring out new stuff and make new inventions. But there are so many of them, and so much new information and bad news from all around the world comes to us every day because we have daily newspapers, we just notice those new inventions once or twice, but forget it the other day because there are so many other things happening somewhere else which is much more interesting than a new invention.

When Galileo was living, the humanity was an ignorant species. We didn’t know many things and thought of a lot of things in a wrong way and looked from the wrong view.  So for Galileo Galilei, it was better to live in the renaissance time than in the modern world.

Filippo Brunelleschi

Filippo Brunelleschi was born in Florence, 1377 and died in April, 1446.

He was an architect and inventor.

    

I think Filippo Brunelleschi was a flexible person but also very convinced of himself, he was representing the skepticism of renaissance by going further than others and beyond the borders of its time. He also studied the old roman architecture and reused their technology again. One example of both is when he was building the Dome in Florence, all other people told him that his idea won’t work; he was stubborn and let the dome get built. And today it’s still standing there.

He was apprenticed to a goldsmith. When he was young, Brunelleschi learned the skills of mounting, engraving and embossing. He also studied the science of motion. In 1401, the young craftsman entered a competition to design new bronze doors for the city’s baptistery, and with this he came to architecture.

Already paranoid, Brunelleschi hid his work away, and watched as his rival, Ghiberti, the lesser technician, wooed the judges and won the commission. Legend has it that Brunelleschi stormed out of the competition when he was refused complete control, and quit the city of Florence altogether. After running out of Florence, Brunelleschi spent the next 10-years living in Rome with his good friend, the sculptor Donatello, studying the ruins of the great city. When Brunelleschi returned to Florence, a new prize was on offer, the magnificent Cathedral desperately needed a dome. Whilst no one had ever made a self-supporting dome before, Brunelleschi was confident that he could solve the problem. But first he had to showcase his talents.

He was an early example of an inventor and architect going beyond the border of doing things “as always” but finding new ways and driving the technological development. He also combined the use of new technologies with impressive design (“Apple?”).

the History of Photography

Camera obscura (around 1000 AD)

It shows an image upside down, but doesn’t hold it on paper.

First known photography in the world (summer 1827).

It was made with the sun print system, taken by Joseph Nicephore Niepce.

Joseph Nicephore Niepces camera.

The Daguerreotype camera was invented by Louis Daguerre using copper plates. This is the first practical way of making an image stuck on a paper, requiring under 30 minutes of light exposure.

Calotype camera was the first camera which made negative pictures providing for multiple copies.  It was invented by Henry Fox Talbot.

Georg Eastman was the founder of Kodak, inventing roll-film cameras, Kodak film and mass market cameras, “point and shoot” was the motto.

The electronic video camera tube was invented in the 1920s, starting a line of development that eventually resulted in digital cameras, which largely supplanted film cameras after the turn of the 21st century.

A digital camera is a camera  that takes videos or photographs, or both, digitally recording images via an elecrtonic image sensor.

Modern camera!!

Sandro Botticelli

He was born on the 1st of March 1445, in Florence and died on May 17th 1510, also in Florence.  He was a painter and friend of the Medicis. Many popular renaissance paintings were drawn by him. For example: the birth of Venus, la Primavera and many different paintings of the Madonna…

             

He was a secularism person and also a good friend of Lorenzo de’Medici, and worked under the guidance of Filippo Lippi, a Medici artist. That’s why the Medicis made him famous, also because he had to paint for them many paintings, because his art was the most sensible, creative and recognizable in Florence.

Towards the end of his lifetime, Botticelli became more devout than before and thought that leaving his paintings here on the earth, would trouble him on the way  to heaven and therefore he burned some of them.

I can see major difference between him and famous people of our time, because he didn’t want to get immortal, so he burned and destroyed some of his paintings. In the modern world, everyone would do anything to be reminded after death.

What is the renaissance?

The renaissance is the time period after the middle ages; the time where the church has lost its power and the people started to think of their own abilities. They started to question things they never mentioned before. It is the time of freedom. Many famous paintings were drawn in this time period. This, because after the medieval time period, were only allowed to draw religious paintings, the painters could draw paintings about whatever they wanted!

But detailed it is: the time period from the 14th to 17th century. In the expression ‘renaissance,’ the word reborn is hided. The reason of this is that ‘reason’ was reborn. This is, because the people where no longer under the rule of the church, and started to question things.

The art and science was really strong at this time. Because after hundreds of years not allowed to question things; research whatever you want and draw how you wanted to; the people felt free and could do whatever they wanted, and so they did. In the middle ages you where now allowed to do whatever you wanted to. So the drawings and architectures sometimes show really strong the freedom!! Some of them still had a middle age touch because the change didn’t happened over night; and also not over one year. No, it took a long time to get there where it finally is: now! But there was a huge change in a short amount of time. Not days or weeks, it used months, years and centuries to change.

The renaissance is connected with the modern world by the paintings and the architecture. This, because, many paintings and art works still exist and tell us about this time period. And in some scientist studies, the people from here and the renaissance scientists have had similar ideas.

But the main connection is; that the end of the renaissance is our presence. The people didn’t have had more freedom hundred years ago, now the people can research and do whatever they want, and also their religion is choosen by our own. No one can tell us what to beliefe or not.